Everything about Rockmelt (including IDM support)

•March 6, 2011 • 13 Comments

Today, the browser connects you to your world. Why not build your world right into your browser? ~ Rockmelt team

With backing by Netscape founder Marc Andreessen and development team lead by Tim Howes and Eric Vishria, it was no wonder that the new “social media integrated” web browser “Rockmelt” received eye glances and raving media sensation following its private beta launch on November 8, 2010. It’s been close to 4 months since it’s beta launch, and while being still in it’s primitive beta stage, Rockmelt has already became heartthrob of many a facebook/twitter addicts. Following an invite only usage (to entice users in following it, nice publicity scheme i say), the browser is being marketed as “social” browser, with a heavy integration with facebook and twitter.

Privacy:

You can get Rockmelt from here, with the nifty price of giving away your facebook account information and further integrating it with your browser. You have to permit Rockmelt for seamless integration with your account, including your friend’s list, your wall, your photos, your activities and more. Privacy concerns, naturally arise. What if Rockmelt suddenly decide to generate ads for revenues and start stalking your data? In this regard, Rockmelt creators have given an in depth analysis for each of their permissions on their blog. Furthermore, they have assured users that no data of the kinds that incriminate privacy is stored, with privacy aspect being the top priority of RockMelt.

“We’re not running ad networks, so we’re not trying to target users in any way. We’re not storing personal information about users and what they do. We anonymize info about what users are doing. We never record info about users, what they’re doing online, searches they’re doing, anything like that.” said the creators.

We hope RockMelt to remain this way and dont break our trust on the ability of this awesome browser to respect our privacy.

Under the Hood:

Rockmelt is based on the  Chromium open source web browser project from which Google Chrome has derived its source code. Naturally, it uses the same layout engine (WebKit) that is employed by Google Chrome. So much so, you wont notice any difference between Google Chrome’s speed and Rockmelt’s speed of rendering a web page. So the fear of having to compromise on blazing fast speeds of Chrome is totally eliminated by Rockmelt’s superb enhancement of the lovable Chrome. The layout engine WebKit has been jointly built by Apple, Google and the open-source community but has the JavaScript engine replaced by Google’s own V8 JavaScript engine, also open-source.

The Layout:


After installing Rockmelt, and subsequently setting up the permissions, the first impression of Rockmelt can only be summed up as: Beautiful. Chrome users like me would feel right at home with Rockmelt’s interface. As i said before, Rockmelt can be summarized as “Enhancement of Chrome“, and it beautifully enhances Chrome in the layout aspect. All the basic look and feel of chrome is intact in Rockmelt. What’s new is the inclusion of Rails or “Edges” around the Top, Left and Right margin of the Browser window. These edges icons have been incorporated in such a way that the browser viewing space is not at all compromised. The left edge has all your facebook friends in neatly compiled vertical icons, the right edge has all the site feeds, applications and facebook/twitter feeds information and the top edge has a “Share” button to share your current webpage. The top edge also incorporates unique search box for easy google search. Also, any new facebook/twitter feed is shown via task bar from lower right corner of the screen. It displays the info and quietly vanishes away, completing its job of notifying users about new feeds. Bookmarks button is present right beside the URL window, with settings being accessed from the top left corner of the window. Overall, the look and aesthetic appeal of Rockmelt is palpable at it’s best. The looks can be further enhanced by using Chrome Themes from the Chrome Web Store. (as Rockmelt is basically Chrome). However, many themes are generally not compatible with Rockmelt as for now, and glitches are noticed. For example, when i installed a certain Rain Drops theme by Cyborg, i noticed the “backward/forward” button and “reload” button missing.

With Rockmelt still in early beta stage, it’s generally advisable not to install Themes as for now. We hope Rockmelt start there own Application/Theme center soon to fix this issue. The current theme is good, with light blue border encapsulating every edge. However, everyone loves a distinct visual variety in themes, to personify their own affection.

Tip: To uninstall theme, click on RockMelt (top right corner)>Options>Personal Stuff tab>And then click on the Reset to Default Themes under the Theme section.


Features:

1.) Facebook Integration: The powerful left edge:

The idea of fully integrating Facebook/Twitter and other social networks within the browser is not new. Infact, competitor Flock has already tried such an attempt with their browser. Also, many 3rd party applications are available on the net that integrates facebook within the browser. However, a dedicated browser for the chief cause of simplifying social media needs is perhaps persistent with Rockmelt. Rockmelt seamlessly integrates two of social network’s giant, Facebook and Twitter. As stated before, the left edge contains all your friend’s list. This provides for nifty instantaneous chat with all your friends. The chat is a breeze, and feels more like instant messaging chat the kinds of YM. No more straining eyes on a small window. Also, if a blue border is surrounding your friend’s icon, it means that your friend has a recent activity under his account. In other words, you can view your friend’s entire recent activity from the chat window itself. The Recent Activity window displays everything, from pics to videos right from the chat window itself. Clicking on any of the links open the links in a new tab in the underlay window. This is very handy in keeping tabs with your friend’s activity. Other distinct feature is the ability to message your friend and write on your friend’s wall from the chat window itself. Also, hovering your mouse over your friend’s icon displays it’s current status update. Overall, the left edge is a complete package to write, chat, message and keep tabs with your friend. Further more, you can directly drag and drop any link on the friend’s icon you want to interact to send him/her the link on Chat, Message or Wall. It also provides a group by favorite friend’s list, with only favorite friends being displayed and available for chat in the window. Again, handy if you want to involve yourself with selected friends in a pool of large friend list. Also present on top of the left edge is the display profile of your account, from where you can go online/offline and update facebook/twitter status updates on the fly. However, more intricate features of Facebook Chat is missing. Chief among them is the inability to group chat. Also, the grouped list/friend list created in facebook is lost. Which means no longer you would be able to make selected annoying groups or friends list offline. Another factor is that for viewing the entire online friend list, you have to open up another overlay window by clicking on the bottom button of the left edge. As vertically, it would be practically impossible to incorporate your entire friends list. However, in facebook, a scroll bar is provided for this purpose. No scroll bars are however provided in the right edge. This doesnt hamper much of your progress, but many a times certain friends would go amiss because you were unable to view their online status (no “coming online” notification is provided!). We hope Rockmelt takes note of this and supplement a fully functional powerful facebook chat feature in it’s official iteration.

2.) Twitter Integration: The Application Right edge:-

Twitter is also integrated in the Rockmelt from the Application Edge in the right hand side of the browser window. Also present in this edge is the Facebook feed, news feed and streams from your favorite sites. Applications developed for Rockmelt and Google Chrome extensions are also present in this tab. Twitter integration, like facebook, is seamless. All you have to do is login from the nifty twitter button, and go on tweeting. The twitter button pops an overlay window displaying all your and your friends tweet. You can go on tweeting, retweeting and sharing the tweets. Like facebook recent activity window, Twitter Window displays every tweet complete with the pictures and videos. The URL are also completely displayed, unlike the twitter counterpart of shortened URLs. Nifty feature to go through entire tweetosphere in a glance. However, only official form of Retweeting is supported, with the ability to append your RTs missing. This right edge also contains news feed and RSS feeds from your favorite sites. The number of feeds are characterized by a small number on the feed icon, making it easier to ascertain the number of news feeds downpoured. One nifty feature is the ability to catch every RSS feed generated from the current window. Many a times, the app manager present in this edge turns green. This means that Rockmelt has captured a feed from the site, allowing for one click addition of feeds from your visited sites. It also categorises the captured feed based on your recent sites visited and your most visited sites.

Included again is the facebook news feed, which displays all your friend’s activity. You can also access your facebook profile from this edge, with the ability to view your notifications and wall. You cant however post on your wall or go on facebooking from the overlay window itself like twitter. You also cant control your facebook page from this window. As stated, the pane is for the feed only. Further, you have no control over viewing selected feeds (such as only status updates, photos or videos) of a few selected friends only. For a user with large friend list, it results in lots of unnecessary feed updates of which he might have no interest, such as application feed updates used by friends. Also, Top News feeds present in facebook is absent.

Lastly, the applications developed for Rockmelt are also included in this edge. Being from the Chrome scene, almost all of the Chrome’s extensions are supported by Rockmelt, and are present in this right edge. They can be controlled by the App Manager present in the edge. However, dedicated applications for RockMelt are in absence. They cant be said in not being in development, with the most recent being Youtube application. But we hope that with the official launch, several 3rd party applications will erupt for the Rockmelt scene.

3.) Search: The top Edge:

The Top edge has two distinct feature. The first one is the share button. It allows you to immediately share your current webpage to facebook and twitter with a pre-shortened link (for twitter). It’s a nice addition, as many web pages or interesting blogs warrant the share around. And not every blog or web page has “Share this” and “Tweet This” button. Another unique feature of Rockmelt is a innovative way of searching the net. Free of ads, whenever you search anything in the search box of the top edge, instead of opening up a new google window of search results, you get a column with the first ten results. You can then actually see the Web pages behind each result in the full browser window by tabbing through each result. This saves search time and is very handy for quick shuffling through the top results without having to open up 10 separate tabs.

However, the overlay search result window blocks certain area of the preloaded web page. Also, you cant scroll down into the loaded web window without having to fend off the result window (meaning, you have to search again after checking out the complete window). A minimize button in the overlay search result window would have solved the problem. Hopefully, RockMelt takes note of this. For most cases however, people are accustomed in searching from the URL box itself (as that’s the prime feature of Chrome). But this nifty search feature is a welcome addition. Just the missing feature is the ability to include other search engines such as wikipedia, yahoo etc. Rockmelt, by default supports only google search from the Search Box. Hopefully Rockmelt includes many diferent search engines by the time it officially launches.

4.) Other features and Notable bugs:

The other features of Rockmelt are more or less same as that of Chrome. The default window has more shortcuts this time, with the ability to view Recently closed tabs and Launching Chrome Applications. The settings is again borrowed that from Chrome, with the traditional  “zoom” button provided for visually challenging websites and other features such as cut, copy, paste, and incognito options. Other things present is the ability to enable/disable the edges altogether, along with ability to enable/disable the feed popup . You can even control the edges by specifying how the links are opened from the edge. Advanced features include Ad Blocker, Form Auto Fill and Web Page pinning. Proxy support, Gears support, SSL Certification and Automatic Translation are also provided. However, as it’s still in early beta stage, several bugs are present. Some times i saw my scroll bar in the browser absent (wonder what’s with Rockmelt and Scroll bars). Also while watching youtube videos, Adobe Flash tended to crash while streaming. Some times when i went offline, and then presented myself back online, i saw my friend list in the right edge disoriented in the sense that it wasnt divided by Online first/Offline later list. Instead it was cluttered with online offline friends mixs. Also, the original Facebook Home page worked extremely slow sometimes, especially in group chat. I had to close and reopen the facebook home page to fix this Twice my Rockmelt browser crashed owing to heavy usage and multitudes of tabs open. Also, i have noticed that Rockmelt tends to work slightly faster in Windows 7 rather then XP. But i guess that’s just me. Also, even if you close Rockmelt, you are still logged into facebook. To completely log out of facebook and exit the browser, you have to “Log out of Rockmelt” via Rockmelt settings button. Also, to completely remove Rockmelt from your system, you have to first unauthorize the RockMelt application in Facebook. This can be achieved by going through Account>Privacy Settings>Edit Settings (under Applications on bottom left)>Selecting Rockmelt and Rockmelt Beta icons>Remove.

Being a beta browser, download manager supports are not present in RockMelt. However, you can incorporate the internet’s most widely used download manager, Internet Download Manager into RockMelt in much the same way as you incorporate in Chrome. In any case, here are the steps:

INSTALLING IDM IN ROCKMELT:

1.) Get the latest version of IDM (i use IDM 6.05)

2.) Go to Downloads>Options.

3.) In the General tab, Click on “use advanced browser integration” checkbox. It will warrant a system reboot.

4.) After reboot, go back to Downloads>Options and click on “Add Browser” button.

5.) Put down the .exe location of RockMelt by checking out the target of RockMelt from Desktop (Right click on RockMelt desktop icon, and clicking on properties, then Find Target button). It’s generally: C:\Documents and Settings\<user name>\Local Settings\Application Data\RockMelt\Application\Rockmelt.exe .

6.) Restart RockMelt, and voila! You are done. You can even download youtube videos. However, unlike Firefox, automatic naming wont be done in this case.

Conclusion:

Having explored every nooks and crannies of Rockmelt in the first 12 hours of BETA review, i can safely conclude that RockMelt is definitely the browser of the future. It seamlessly integrates the social networking experience with the browsing experience in an unprecedented way. Attempts like this have been tried in the past with less successful Flock. But RockMelt demonstrates the ability to engineer the world of sharing your thoughts any time you wish. What is evident in RockMelt is the big change in browsing experience it’s bringing, by streamlining your social network and your news stream into one single window. This seamless integration of Facebook, Twitter and News Stream is the hallmark of Rockmelt. Rockmelt basically takes your entire social network with you, wherever you go in the internet world, your social network always follows you in Rockmelt. However, not every user wants to take their facebook with them whenever they access the net. All of this data flow might be daunting for some users though. It’s natural of a certain normal guy to be vindicated by the amount of streams, digital tweetings, pop up updates and “glare” of the friend list while all he is doing is filling up a Bank Transaction. Many others would feel distracted by this constant downpour of shared information. In short, Rockmelt biggest strength of complete Social Network Integration most possibly can be it’s biggest weakness and the reason for rejection due to Information Overload. In other browsers, you can atleast keep open up a separate facebook tab and limit or prevent your distractions by significant amount, as you no longer would be bombarded on the fly with news feeds and facebook pop ups. In this regard, you can always disable the edges and pop up feeds in Rockmelt itself, however no difference would arise then between Rockmelt and other old horse browsers. Ultimately, this “distraction” argument is pointless, as Rockmelt is a solid work of art. It’s a product that creates a whole new world under a single window. With it’s plethora of features, easy integration with facebook/twitter, great browsing speed, news feed updates and Chrome functionality, Rockmelt easily melts us facebook addict hearts. Certain bugs are evident, however we hope that patches and a proprietary release would remove many of the bugs and put certain requests on the bandwaggon such as Group Chat Support, Different Search Engines Support, Other Social Network Support besides Facebook/Twitter and Theme/Application center. To finally conclude, we can say that Rockmelt stands true on it’s word of “building your world right into your browser”.

 

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Nano Augmentation: A Reality?

•February 18, 2011 • 7 Comments

Complete Introduction in Establishing Augmentation & Communication Process Through Artificial Nano Implant Digital Circuit Interface

Abstract:

One great scientific innovation lies in two of the most happening branches of Science, Nanotechnology and Augmentation Technology. Augmentation means connecting the physical world with the digital one in real-time. However, the ongoing problem with the augmentation world is that no real-time interface exists that can effectively bridge the gap between the physical world and the digital world. The current interfaces are mostly bulky (head mounts) or destructive (Ipad). They also don’t allow complete freedom of manipulation of the physical data and has considerable time lag in the digital world. To address this, Nano Technology comes into picture. Nano Technology allows us to create new sub atomic materials by manipulating matter the size of 1-100 nm. What is proposed here is implantation of Nano Augmentation, digital hardware the size of nanometers, manufactured with the help of Nano Technology. With Quantum mechanics at play, Nano Particles serve as perfect interface between the physical and the digital worlds. These Nano Implants can be then hardwired directly into human brain or nerve cells, hence forth making the time lag negligible. With advancement in laser surgery, it’s plausible to think of nano surgeries. Furthermore, with instructions hard-coded into the nano implants, these nano augmentations can ease up significant number of human needs. A brain augmented person, for example, can have perfect memory retentive capacity, the ability to share information on the fly and the ability to process the physical world in cybernetic conception. Information exchange would increase significantly, as all people would be connected in the digital world. Concluding, we can say that even with the sheer risks involved, the endless possibilities poised by Nano Augmentation as an interface can’t be ignored. It would completely change the standard of living, with the profound information exchange making the global village even smaller.

Introduction:

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.  ~A. Clarke

Mr. Clarke was perhaps very right in these words. We live in a world where magic exists, thanks to the ongoing technological revolution. One such technological innovation lies in perhaps two of the most happening branches of Science, The Nanotechnology and the Augmentation Technology.

Augmentation here has broad meaning, but processing the word in the scientific sense, it means modulating the Physical world with which we interact and moulding it with cyber interface. Speaking more specifically, augmenting means connecting the physical world and the digital world real-time. Augmentation is generally achieved by Interfaces, such as head mounted displays, to connect the digital world and the physical world.

Nanotechnology is defined as the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale (on the size of 1 to 100 nm). Broader sense again, we can actually manufacture hardware the size of nanometers by manipulation of atoms and electrons. With Quantum mechanics at play, the implications of Nano Tech is huge. We can create new atomic level materials that can have effect on every conceivable genre of Science and Technology, especially medicines. But perhaps the most exciting aspect about nano technology is that it can help us bridge the gap between biology and hardware, as nano hardware can easily act as implants due to its sheer small size.

Hence forth, we can define Nano Augmentation as those nano hardware or implants that can allow us to perceive the digital world in an augmented format. It allows us to conceive the cyber reality in real-time and be digitally connected 24X7. Nano Implants blurs the boundaries between the physical and the digital world. It replaces the traditional existing interface, for example Ipad or 3D display, that is generally used for creating the cyber reality.

Need: Problems with Existing Interface:

Although several attempts have been made to bridge the gap between the physical world and the digital world, it’s the interface which has always poised a problem. The existing interface has numerous problems that warrant a potential shift to nano implants.

  • Bulky: The existing interface that offers a near about virtual reality experience are huge in size. Their bulkiness makes them an unnecessary factor in the augmentation experience.
  • Destructible: Many such interfaces are destructive in nature, or can be easily misplaced or harmed. Their tendency to attract easy physical damage creates a problematic scenario.
  • Time Delay: The existing interfaces, though offers near about complete augmentation experience, are severely limited by the delay in establishing connection between the physical and the cyber world. This delay hampers the ability of interfaces to attenuate the physical world event at exactly the same time in the cyber world, and vice versa.
  • Incomplete: The interface never offers the complete augmentation experience, i.e the ability to perceive the cyber reality and the physical world, modifying it on the fly. They are limited to the simple commands.
  • Complicated: The interface takes lots of time to set up the augmentation process. Additionally, they create lots of unnecessary hassles in establishing control.
  • Dangerous: Current implants are mainly composed of electrodes, chiefly, 500 microns thick (5 times human hair). Additionally, they consist of several sharp electrodes (Brain Gate has 96 electrodes), which pose the danger of brain damages. Also, even if there are no implants, the traditional interface always pose a danger, be it hardware failure or bodily harm through improper electric insulation.

The Idea: Nano Augmentation

Redefining the Nano Augmentation word, they are the nano implants that replace the existing problematic interface, and serve as the new upgraded interface with many added functionalities. Using the concept of Nano Biology, they can also act as cell replacements in the near future.

A Nano implant is generally manufactured from inorganic materials such as silicon or germanium with the help of nano technology. They consist of Power supply, Communicator module, Chemical synthesizers, Nucleus probe with sensors and mechanical effectors and a virus detector/eliminator. The functionality of the implants are hard-coded into them.

These nano implants are then surgically placed into the required body parts. The bottom line here lies in establishing a clear communication link between human nerves and the implant’s communicator module. These communications are enhanced using partially invasive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) methods or Biosensors. Partially invasive BCI means that the implants are not inserted into the brain or the said body part, instead, the implants are just glazed into the surface of the brain or the said body part. Hence forth, it is necessary that the implant must depict an almost artificial neuron behavior, as for real-time communication process it is mandatory to instigate an artificial immune & communication system. That’s because it’s our body’s immune system that acts as an interface between the human thought process and the neurons. We seek to inject this natural interface with our artificial one, so as to grasp the human thought process and transform it into digital commands via Nano Implants. Hence forth, the nano implants, at its basic, must depict artificial neuron behavior as far as possible.

The communication process of body and hardware would happen between the tendrils of human neurons and the implants, much like the neurons interact with other cells. Nerve signals generated by action potentials and electrical energies generated by brain cortex, or specific area of brains would be detected by Bio sensors, and then transferred to the Communication module inside the nano implants for feedback. The implants would generate a similar target signal to interact with the human body. Broadly speaking again, a similar kind of interface would be formed between human thought and artificial implants, much as the interface that is formed between human thought and neurons.

Once the implants are in place, they are activated to connect digitally with the cyber world. Here, the communication process with the global net happens with the help of Wi-Fi, or more specifically, Radio Waves. Hence, a proper interface is established between the cyber world, the physical world and the human body.

Communication Process:

Given above is communication process that happens between Nano Implant and the VR application. The connected implant picks up the EM signatures or signals generated from the brain cortex or target dendrites. These electrical signals are then digitized, processed in real-time, translated to the application signal and then finally, the signal commands are transferred to the said VR application via Wi-Fi in the form of Radio waves. The reverse happens in case we want a feedback from the VR application. The received Wi-Fi or radio wave signal is converted into the electrical form, and then fired back into the neurotic network or the targeted dendrites via Implant’s Communication Module. Henceforth, a two-way connection is established almost seamlessly.

Given above is the core circuit design for the nano Implant. The above pic is the nobel prize-winning Hodgkin–Huxley model which accurately depicts the action potential of a neuron. Basically, it is a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that approximates the electrical characteristics of excitable cells such as neurons and cardiac myocyte. The lipid bilayer is represented as a capacitance (Cm). Voltage-gated and leak ion channels are represented by nonlinear (gn) and linear (gL) conductance, respectively. The electrochemical gradients driving the flow of ions are represented by batteries (E), and ion pumps and exchangers are represented by current sources (Ip). We can use this model as the core circuitry for the nano implants. The simplified equations in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model would further ease the process of creating the digital nano circuit. Bottom line, Hodgkin-Huxley model acts as the partial blueprint towards creation of artificial neuron circuits in the form of nano implants. The equation would read as:

\dot{v}=v-v^3 - w + I_{\rm ext}
\tau \dot{w} = v-a-b w.
  • V is the membrane potential,
  • W is a recovery variable,
  • I is the magnitude of stimulus current.

The existing Hodgkin-Huxley model has been extended a lot since it’s inception, but we must note that at its core, the model would serve it’s purpose. What is meant is that by expanding and extending the Hodgin-Huxley model, we can create or recreate a suitable Nano Implant digital model. Most notable in this regard is the Cable Theory model, where the existing model is depicted as a cylindrical structure undergoing a regular pattern of bifurcation, with total output conductance given as:

Henceforth, creating the digital circuitry wont be much of a hassle.

Now we discuss the equations once the artificial implants are in place with the natural neuron circuit. For a given artificial neuron, let there be m + 1 inputs with signals x0 through xm and weights w0 through wm. Usually, the x0 input is assigned the value +1, which makes it a bias input with wk0bk. This leaves only m actual inputs to the neuron: from x1 to xm. The output of kth neuron is: Where \varphi (phi) is the transfer function.

Furthermore:

Hence we can see, the output behavior is analogous to a natural axon circuit of a human neuron. Its value propagates to input of the next layer, through a synapse. It may also exit the system, possibly as part of an output vector. Broadly speaking, the output of the kth neuron, in this case our artificial implant, would be analogous to the output of the kth natural neuron in the complicated dendrites circuit. Henceforth, we would take inputs from several targeted dendrites, and calculate the output of the artificial implant using the given equation, facilitating our knowledge of the output voltage generated in the Hodgin-Huxley model or the reimagined Nano Implant digital circuit.

The above pic approximately denotes the nano electrode which we would use for the partially invasive BCI process. As explained before, we wont be fitting the implants directly into human brain, as that would prove to be very dangerous to the brain in case hardware failure happens. Henceforth, we would need electrodes to extract the signals generated from the human neurons. To facilitate this process, we would need nano electrodes. The entire implant except the electrodes would be properly insulated to prevent any kind of electrical leakage. The electrodes itself would be made of gold as molecular pharmacologist Roberta Brinton has discovered that neurons adhere better to gold than to other substances.

Even after we create the nano implant, we would need the functionality hard-coded into them. For that purpose, we would need an algorithm to program the digital implants in depicting the artificial neuron behavior. The following is a simple pseudocode implementation of a single step function of a neuron. It takes boolean inputs (true or false), and returns a single boolean output when activated. An object-oriented model is used. If a purely functional model were used, the class TLU below would be replaced with a function TLU with input parameters threshold, weights, and inputs that returned a boolean value.

class TLU defined as:
  data member threshold : number
  data member weights : list of numbers of size X
  function member fire( inputs : list of booleans of size X ) : boolean defined as:
   variable T : number
   T  0
   for each i in 1 to X :
    if inputs(i) is true :
     T  T + weights(i)
    end if
   end for each
   if T > threshold :
    return true
   else:
    return false
   end if
  end function
 end class

In quite a similiar fashion that we would apply to Hodgkin-Huxley model, we could modify this algorithm to serve our purpose in coding the functionality of the artificial nano implant. The coding itself would be done is processor language. But at the core would lie this algorithm which accurately depicts the step function of a neuron.

Advantages and New Problems:

The need to shift to new Nano Interface can be argued by the sheer number of advantages it offers. It completely rectified the many defects of the existing bulky interfaces. Owing to their very tiny size, the bulkiness factor is immediately rectified. Secondary, with instructions hard-coded into the implants, no scope of any kind of tampering arises with the implants. Since these are natural implants, they would be a medical ease to fit by, kind of similar to the establishment of prosthetic limb (which is a medical ease nowadays). Also, since these implants would be in direct synchronous with human body, no factor of any time delay can arise. They would also be superior to the traditional implants in every aspect, posing no danger to the brain or organs whatsoever due to the very tiny size of the electrodes.

However, certain problems do arise. Chief among them is the Surgical process itself. Will it survive? The answer to this rhetorical question lies in the fact that recent advancements in Laser Surgery and their applications have simplified the process. So implantation wouldn’t be much of a hassle. Much complicated implantation have been done with Prosthesis in this regard. Critics here might circumvent to Hardware failures. But hardware failure is a thing acknowledged by all engineers as unavoidable (Murphy’s Law). We can though, reduce the damages posed. The implants can be made as such to melt under certain set of chemicals, posing no damage. These chemicals can be artificially taken in the form of medicinal pills. Furthermore, the implants would disconnect with human body in a similar fashion as a cell dies and a switch is offed. Another thing might circumvent towards the sheer information overload due to the 24X7 connection. However, just like we choose what to see or download from the internet, we could control the information exchange in quite the same fashion. Plausible Radio Wave damages might again pose a problem. However, no solid proof has been yet known to the engineers that radio waves damages human cells. Furthermore, multiplexing technique (dividing the simultaneous frequency transmission into different spectrum range) can altogether remove the little bit of risks involved.

Typical Augmented Case Study


A brain augmented person would have revolutionary advantages over the existing humans. Perfect memory retentive capacity, the ability to store memory in another body if the current one retires and the ability to process the physical world in cybernetic conception are among some of the innovative features that could be implemented by the use of implants. Typical example of a memory augmented person would be a being who wakes up in the morning, has all his appointments and schedules flashed right before his eyes (via visual implants if need be), would download all the news or information directly into his augmented memory and everything he needs to know or remember would be flashed before his eyes in a matter of seconds. Ofcourse, his organic brain would be unharmed, as the organic brain is the receiver of all the augmented output the person perceives. Visual Augmentation yields even more possibilities, the ability to know the likes and dislikes about a person (similar to a facebook profile, only digital) in real-time, the ability to download the information of, say a tourist building, in a flash, ability to see clearly in the dark with inbuilt night sensors and many others. Physical augmentation would allow a person to directly link himself with the cybernetic interface (ranging from anything like an advanced public directory or a super computer) and seek and process the information in real-time. The world would change as we know it, with the boundaries between the cyber world and physical world being blurred.

Conclusion


Concluding on, we can say that even with the sheer risks involved, the endless possibilities poised by Nano Augmentation couldn’t be ignored. It addresses the current bulky problems posed by traditional interface, and adds much-needed functionalities. Implants would communicate directly with human nerves with the help of bio sensors and direct targeting of human cortex, making it one of the fastest implants. Some problems might arise, especially in the means of Information Overflow and Hardware Control. However none of them are problems that can’t be addressed.

Nano Augmentation would completely change the standard of living, with the sheer information exchange making the global village even smaller. It would connect us in unison and perhaps erase the political boundaries altogether. With Nano Technology and Digital Augmentation being the newest technological rage, it’s only imperative that the combined usage of Nano Augmentation would perhaps be the most fruitful discovery of our times.

References:

HTML vs XHTML: A Brief Introduction

•February 18, 2011 • 2 Comments

First developed in 1980 by physicist Tim Berners-Lee, currently HTML or Hyper Text Markup Language is perhaps the most well-known markup language for web page design, allowing the usage of simple codes or tags to process, define and present a scintillating web page. Considered as the building blocks of all websites, HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text and images. Embedding client-side scripting (eg: Java-scripts) and reference to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) further enhances it’s flexibility and control over a web page.

However, while HTML was based on Generalized Markup Language (later SGML) based markup rules, a new markup language titled XHTML (eXtensible HyperText Markup Language) was formulated to address the general document problems and other more complex and human-oriented features persisting with SGML. Based on XML (Extensible Markup Language), XHTML allows greater control over the “meta language” feature, i.e allowing users to create any tags needed (hence “extensible”) and then describing those tags and their permitted uses. Owing to it’s simplicity and flexibility, XHTML quickly became popular and became W3C Recommendations since January 2000.

However, not much of a difference lies in between XHTML and HTML, as XHTML is basically a ‘reformulation of HTML as an XML application‘, or has the same set of element types and semantics as HTML, heavily mirroring it (one of the prime reasons for the smooth transition). But there are many core syntactical differences, mainly that all XHTML elements must be properly nested, must always be closed, must be in lowercase and always have one root element present. Other notable difference lies in Behavioral response to Scripts and CSS. These differences allows for consistency in the syntax and paves it’s way for more rigorous document creation.

Additionally, XHTML incorporates XSLT (Extensible Style sheet Language Transformations) technology, which is tremendously useful to create various new resources automatically from an XHTML document (eg: creating table of content or RSS feed directly from web page). XHTML clearly is easier to learn and maintain and gains an upper hand with it’s robust set of features and future readiness.

However, for the end user, not much of a difference would arise in an HTML created web page or XHTML created document. Infact, the only way to make the markup language recognize the document as XHTML is by using the xmlns attribute in the tag (xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&#8221;). Both HTML and XHTML created document would be perceived as mostly same while viewed from the web browser.

So the question arises, which one to choose? Perhaps the simplest answer to this paradigm would be “Using the right tool for the right job”. A web designer would have to evaluate the status of his project and the extent of features he wishes to use. For future readiness and using advanced features of searching, indexing and parsing, XHTML would serve the purpose. However, for simplicity and widespread usage (as IE still doesn’t support XHTML), HTML would more than suffice. In the end though, both are equally versatile, flexible and offer unprecedented control over web page coding.

Market Research: How to increase Market Share in Rural Areas by established MNCs.

•February 12, 2011 • 6 Comments

Mahatma Gandhi was perhaps right when he said that the True India resides in it’s Villages. With 128 million households, the rural population is nearly three times the urban. India’s 627,000 villages are spread over 3.2 million sq km, and close to 700 million Indians or staggering 70% of India’s Population lives in Rural India. Naturally, Rural India’s Market is a fountain of youth for established MNCs. The untapped market of Rural India coupled with it’s sheer vastness gives pleothra of options for MNCs to expand their interests.

These opportunities do come with their fair share of problems. We must note that Rural Market works on a strikingly different note than their Urban Counterpart. The main problem in Rural India resides in the fact that standard of living for many people are abysmally low. Most of the Rural Population is still around or below poverty line (BPL) level, which significantly dents their purchasing power. Further, wide spread illiteracy adds to the woes, removing much scope of Print Media. Rural Market in fact offers very unprecedented demand topology. This is due to the fact that the heart of most of the rural areas prospers chiefly in agricultural economy. Hence, faithful dependence on monsoonal seasons and other factors influences their income generation rate, which in turn trickles down to their purchasing power. Other problem arises in the form of poor road connections, electricity problems and warehousing problems. Improper Communication may also arise as a challenge, as different rural dialects spoken in different rural culture can expatriate the advertisement process. Then perhaps the big challenge arises in addressing the Local Brands, who with their very cheap look alike products, have established predominance in the rural market.

To address all these problems, we have systematically divided the solution into four parts. What we propose here the 4As solution scheme, namely: Acceptance, Affordability, Availability and Advertisement.

1.) Acceptance: To make a product to be actually accepted and prospered among the rural masses, a through site analysis of the rural areas where the product is intended to launch must be done. Right from the radio stations used to the different dialects spoken, every tiny detail must be known about the rural culture in order to facilitate better product penetration. We mustn’t, for example, expect a meat product to be sold in a rural area whose culture is predominantly Vegetarian. To further solidify the workings of the rural areas, educated youth of that area could be recruited as trainees to act as cheap substitutes. These trainees could further act as our agents in promotion schemes of our product. And due to their solid knowledge of Rural Foundations, they would provide us with very useful information about the rural market demands, helping us greatly in implementing our product launch strategy. We could, for example, completely rediscover or tweek the product to suit the rural tastes or needs.

2.) Affordable: To address the chief problem of low purchasing power capacity of rural market, the product has to be of as bare minimum cost as possible. Chief resources in the R&D department could be allocated for designing products with strict cost constraint. Advancement in Technology here could be utilized to the fullest in greatly reducing the production cost. Engineers can rediscover the established products in innovative ways to further strip down the cost. Innovative strategies could also be employed, such as selling the products in tiny packages but in far lesser cost. Employing various free schemes, such as one free for purchase of two can also work as a great ploy. Making the product attractive and easy to function also works wonders in sales. And if the product instructions & general packaging are done in local dialect, it would greatly boast the local rural morale and would be our prime supplement of the sales figure. Furthermore, we can also remove the unnecessary functions of the product that are not required by an average villager. For all of this to work though, we need to properly understand the mindset of the villager (hence, Acceptability), before we cave into actually designing and launching the product.

3.) Availability: After successfully strategizing and launching the product, it’s very crucial to secure the supply chain in order to maintain a constant demand-supply ratio. The first step for this regard would be in establishing area offices in connecting central villages or towns to monitor the distribution process effectively. The site analysis done earlier could help a lot for this cause. Regarding transportation, conventional means such as bullocks, auto rickshaws and hired trucks can help us in proper running of the chain. Furthermore, symbiotic collaboration with the private distributor chains can help us penetrate the product deeply into the market as these distributors have their network plugged in the rural areas. Collaboration with other self help rural groups and/or microlenders that are already established in the rural scenario can also be beneficial. To further monitor the process, we could place our trainees and/or local stockists at strategic locations in and around the area. Regarding storage issues, suitable dealers or private goddowns would help us a lot in this regard, as they could provide us with well maintained warehouses to properly store the products for distribution. Also, Direct distribution of the product in the weekly bazaar can serve the dual purpose of availability and advertisement.

4.) Advertisement: Advertisement plays a key role in any market scenario, be it rural or urban. However, in rural market, print media and televisions hardly pays any role due to widespread illiteracy and the fact that only 41 percent of rural population owns TV. Henceforth, new and innovative methods must be established in this genre to facilitate better advertisement of our product. Conventionally, we could begin by placing our advertisement in the local radio channel or Doordarshan Channel. For this, our advertisement shouldn’t be text oriented as villagers wont be able to understand, instead, it must be heavy on graphics and attractive to the general masses. It should feature a theme which is local and close to the rural heart. Banners and Posters to be set up must be visually aesthetic to garner appeal. Furthermore, the local haat and melas of the villages serve as the breeding ground of unconventional methods of advertising, namely: stalls, publicity vans, mouth to mouth advertising, colourful pamphlets distribution and promotional events. Also, we could target the opinion leader of the area (generally Village Sarpanch or Rich Landlord) to facilitate our advertisement cause. Their influence sphere could serve our advertisement process to great extent, as they could help us in making the masses aware of the duplicate items manufactured by local brands. To further tap the potential of advertisement, we could establish a brand ambassador, (likely to be a Local or National Film star) which is loved and admired by the locals. This could help us in establishing a direct emotional chord of our product with the locals.

Future and Conclusion:

Even after establishing oneself in rural market, the work would be half done. To cement our market shares, we must have expansion plans ready. We could establish permanent godowns and factories in rural areas to facilitate better production and distribution. In this aspect, providing employment to the rural youth in these factories could be very much beneficial. We could, by collaboration of the villages, even provide free or cheap education to the rural masses to strengthen our support and also to train future managers. The support factor can also help us in extirpating any opposition faced by extremists.  Furthermore, local banks could be targeted to facilitate better bank loans with low interests, greatly increasing both support and purchasing power of the villagers.

In the end, we can only conclude that Rural Market, though with its fair share of dillemas and problems, presents itself as raw opportunity. It’s sheer vastness and enrootment in the Indian Market is the leading cause to pursue the cause of establishment in the rural areas. Illiteracy, Poor Road connections & Low Purchasing Power does dents the process, but it paves ways to new and innovative methods of market philosophy. Solution exists in the 4As: Acceptance, Affordability, Availability and Advertisement. The product must adhere to the rural standards in order to be properly accepted. It must cost less, but yet provide the bare minimum functionality that is required by the customers.  Tapping in the local distribution chains and using conventional methods established in the rural area can help make the product properly distributed among the masses. Advertisement must follow the unconventional path, with stalls and publicity vans helping the purpose. Future endeavor must be established by garnering local and government support, by providing education and employment opportunities. Through all these means and methods, we can successfully capture and increase our Market Sharein the rural scenario to a far greater extent, tapping our ways in this vast open market.

Random Thoughts: Human Relation, Definition & the Future

•April 15, 2010 • 2 Comments

One good friend of mine once said to me “Making a relation is very simple but maintaining is very very difficult and complex”. This statement, again like many other powerful statements, has lots of meaning hidden beneath the simple words used to describe the sentence. First of all, what exactly is a relation. The word often is tossed around the professional and personal fields, often with the pshychologists and the purists. Truly defining a relation would be difficult as relation like love is something which is not duly given value by the mere definition of it’s english synonm. Relation is something which we are constantly surrounded with, like air. It’s the basic essence of society, the bare minimum like a atom. It’s the very fabric which shapes human history and life, infact which defines the humans. Humans above all are social animals, and society is defined on the syntax of this word relation. Every human maintains a certain relation with the surroundings, be it with nature or mostly with other humans, without relation human existence is not defined. For an average man, he maintains a professional relation in the workplace, with his working collageus and his peons, with his senior boss and with his partners. He maintains a personal relation with his friends, the intimacy of those relation defined by the closeness associated with his friends and his girlfriends. He maintains all sorts of other relations, like relation of a son with his parents, relation of a mentor for some follower of him or his junior.

However with every relation, comes certain expectations. You can expect an husband to be loyal to his wife and to duly love his wife. Likewise you will expect a wife to obey his husband’s higher wisdom and to devote time of his life for her husband’s needs and likewise maintaing the household needs and the child (however such definitions of husband and wifes are never used in the modern context of society, which has truly altered the role of girls as exhibited from the ancient times; truly a revolutionarly age we are living our lifes into). Expectations, however large or small they maybe, always exist between a relation. And hence I said earlier, a relation is made with as simple as saying “I Love you” or “Hello” but the expectations that follow thereon is the most difficult part for maintaing that relation. But irony is this that had there been no expectations to follow, no relation would have existed in the first place. For example, suppose a boy living distantly comes to know his mother is very sick. He would than definitely toil immense distances and bad weather or rather do anything in the possibility of the world to meet his mother. He would not do this for any other woman, because he doesn’t maintains that relation with others and hence other women don’t expect the boy to toil hardships to meet them when they are sick. The sick mother on the other hand has her bare expectationt to meet her son, without which the relation would not be entirely possible. Hence the bottom line is, the amount of expectations we perceive from a human relation is what adds to the complexity of a relationship, and yet it is this expectations we have that maintains the relation (however difficult it may be) and this relationship is what makes us truly Human.

Moreover, People in a relationship tend to influence each other, share their thoughts and feelings, and engage in activities together. Because of this interdependence, most things that change or impact one member of the relationship will have some level of impact on the other member. They are further regulated by courts, laws and other entities of the society, hence completing the circle!

One Human, named Murphy, gave a very simple but delicate law. He meant it mainly to the scientific world and never to the complex world of sociology and pshychology, but it applies well here too. It can be stated as “Anything can go wrong at any time”. This simple statement, meant for the mathematical analysis for computing and largely used with context of Moore’s Law of computing, can be successfully applied in human relation. A relation, however big and small, with one person or with a entire society, offline or online, sexual or non sexual, just any kind of relation is never 100% safe, or applying Murphy’s Law here, any relation can go wrong at any time. Just when you are thinking that nothing can go wrong, it goes terribly wrong. There is always, ALWAYS, a significant chance of failures. So those people who dream big but are unconciously afraid of loosing the success fame of their dreams, there self destructive behavior are going on for the certain. It goes wrong in such a way you can never ever imagine , after all our concious mind is not divine. We have but only a mere percentage of our brain power. And unfortunately, computers and science are not advanced enough to calculate the effectiveness of a thing as complex as human relationship (maybe that’s why Muphy derived the law in the first place). Whatever the case maybe, every human relation is bound to fail, it’s obviously seen on the person to person relation as exhibited by breakups and divorces and firing of the juniors or back stabbing by your best friend. On larger scale, we can take the example of the Russian Revolution, when the communist regime took over, the relationship which the Russians maintained till than were drastically changed and eliminated. By the takeover of Lenin and his Bolsheviks, the entire societal and adminstrative framework of Russia was changed and a new regime of communism USSR was born.

However, given this knowledge, isnt it ironical that human relations are still maintained and cherished. It’s a biggest irony that the very essence of human society can go drastically wrong any given time, and yet we live our lives like we should. Imagine if now, the entire world is told at the same time, that earth is going to collapse tommrow, what chaos it will generate! But here lies the difference, we know that human relation is bound to collapse at any given time, but we don’t know WHEN. It’s the human curiosity of the scientific mind that he is not able to perceive the When and How, the requirements for his hungry greedy mind to generate chaos with the herd mentality. In other words, this mystery of a relation going all wrong, makes us even more likening to maintain it. It’s this risk factor that makes it likeable. Also since human relations are essential for human beings, they make it and enjoy it. When it perishes, they lament it. Certain less brave and emotionally weak end their lives (the Recession generated many suicides in the professional field in the 21st century, certainly not many were able to cope up with the unlikely termination of their professional “relation”). And to be frank, more than 90% humans don’t try to understand the mystery and complexity of making or maintaing a relation or don’t want to engage on the same, there minds are mainly too absorbed and engaged more in enjoying rather than asking how I am enjoying this! Taking a cue from Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time, “Gone are the days of thinkers like Socrates and Aristotle”. Today the world is on a revolution, the 20th century saw the birth of Machines and see what effect it did to the world, with british colonization and rise of English to the two world wars and the communism and modern art to heavy metal to our life like dependency on basic needs like electricity and fan etc. The machines in short! Heck if you compare the societies of 20th century of Democracy, Diplomacy (even with both wars) and individual freedom (although greater freedom in the end of 20th century) and the 19th century of the Knights, empires, slaves and the constanst wars they would be obvious. The beginning of 21st century has started what can be called a Technological Revolution, a tad similar to the beginning of 20th century which saw birth of industrial revolution! (and look what effect it did to the world in just one century!)

The 21st century will witness the birth of AI and a complete overhaul of our global society, on a far larger scale than the 20th century Industrial Revolution. I don’t want to be futuristic because it’s not in my audacity to think on the greater and scientific uncertainity of the future, but still, what can be generally perceived is that by 3010, our world would be too digitilized and too narrowed in the earthly pleasure that this virtualization would bring. The human relation would either cease to exist with the virtualization and the AI (it’s effect are seen now with increasingly number of loners and computer addicts being generated over the internet, especially in States. Large number of deaths due to computer games in South Korea’s gaming cafes are another such example) or would reach such a transition phase that it’s definition would be rewritten to suit the social needs of that era. It’s possible that there would be large scale world societal collapse and a virtual society would be formed with the traditional laws of relation applying there. It’s even possible that the relation would be shared by a few very wealthy persons over the greater narrow minded masses, the adverse effects of complete capitilization reaching it’s ultimatum. Lot’s of possibilities exist if we start thinking about the future society and the machines and the ongoing technological revolution. But one thing is certain, human relation, however it may be manipulated or defined or even reach a new phase altogether, will always be there, even though the humans at the next century would be the AI and the Machines. Relationship, like I said in the very beginning, is the essence of any society and nucleus of the human being to be called humans.

To conclude we can again come to the very first sentence of this para, it’s very easy to start a relation by a simple “Hi”, but the efforts that follow in keeping up with the expecations of the relation,as it turns more and more complex (like from acquitance to true love), is what defines the human being and the society at large. Many people develop this fear of loosing this relation after giving all there sincere efforts, hence they develop suicidal or self destructive behavior. But what they must know is that all relation has to end at one point or other. It’s the sweet (and bitter) journey that matters, the efforts you put and the little or greater happiness and sweet memories you obtained or extracted from your efforts. It’s the lessons you learned in the journey, of how the relation changed your life (even for worse). It’s that which matters, not the final destination which is always the end, either by death or by any other countless expected or unexpected reasons. Many people are always worried about their relation, worried sick that it will end someday. They must understand clearly that One relation ends doesn’t means life ends, because it’s always easy to make a new relation, isnt it? (but some relations can never be totally replaced or forgotten, their memories will always make us laugh or cry and their values will always be reflected in our way of life. It’s easy to start a new relation, but it’s close to impossible to forget and completly move on from the previous relation). Life is all about moving on from one phase to another, enjoying and living all the phases as it proceeds with their change in relationships.

The Rise and Fall of Hitler:His mistakes and His World (PART 2)

•July 23, 2009 • 1 Comment

World War 2,at 1938,was inevitable.It followed a year later but the tensions were already started building up.

Under the Versailles Settlement, Czechoslovakia was created, including the Sudetenland, which had a large German population.Hitler,on its first course of territorial aggression formed a plan to annex Czechoslovakia on the pretext of occupying Sudetenland as it was a ethinic German State according to Hitler.Already merging Austria with Germany after a march in Vienna on March 14,1938,Hitler can be said to be flushing with confidence.  Konrad Henlein of the Sudeten Heimfront (Home Front),held secret meetings with Hitler and in private Hitler himself agreed to annex Czechoslovakia.Now Sudetenland was a important territory for Czechoslovakia as it had most of the important industries and a good western defense border.Losing Sudetenland meant loosing Czechoslovakia.Now here is an important diplomatic war or appeasement if you name,Britain,although economocially strong,didn’t have a very strong army of size of millions which Germany later developed,but,combining power of Britain and France were large in size in 1938 to crush Germany.Infact,this fear was developed by some German diplomats,when Britain warned Germany following the May Crisis (false alarm that Germany was going to invade Czechoslovakia on 19th May 1938) that they will go War with Germany if France intervened.However Britain authorities wanted a peaceful way out and hence the policy of appeasement was conducted.Following Hitler demands,At the conference of 28 May 1938,that it was his “unalterable” decision to “smash Czechoslovakia” by 1 October of the same year and also as a result of intense French, and especially British diplomatic pressure, President Edvard Beneš unveiled on 5 September 1938, the “Fourth Plan” for constitutional reorganization of his country, which granted most of the demands for Sudeten autonomy made by Henlein in his Karlsbad speech of April 1938, and threatened to deprive the Germans of their pretext for aggression.However violent clashes in Sudentenland occurred following which British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain conceived of a plan to fly to Germany and meet Hitler, and then work out an agreement that could end the crisis.Talks do followed in September 1938(particulary In a summit at Berchtesgaden),but they were made difficult due to different viewpoints,with Hitler aiming to use the Sudeten issue as a pretext for war and Chamberlain genuinely striving for a peaceful solution.

When Chamberlain returned to Germany on 22 September to present his peace plan for the transfer of the Sudetenland at a summit with Hitler at Bad Godesberg, the British delegation was most unpleasantly surprised to have Hitler reject his own terms he had presented at Berchtesgaden as now unacceptable.Hitler than,to put an end to Chamberlain’s peace-making efforts once and for all, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be ceded to Germany no later then 28 September 1938 with no negotiations between Prague and Berlin and no international commission to oversee the transfer; no plebiscites to held in the transferred districts until after the transfer; and for good measure, that Germany would not forsake war as an option until all the claims against Czechoslovakia by Poland and Hungary had been satisfied.A Bad Godesberg ultimatum was proposed to Britain for allowance of German annexation,however Britain rejected it (25th September 1938).Hence a great political tension occurred,as Britain again clearly warned Hitler that if France attacks (as French were honour bound to Czechoslovakia with the Franco-Czechoslovak alliance of 1924),they will also declare war on Germany.(following the rejection of Bad Godesberg ultimatum Britain started preparing for War with increased Civil defence and mobilization of British Fleet).Sensing this,the attack on Czechoslovakia,which was initially planned on 1st October 1938 was called off and Hitler changing his mind, and through the suggestion, of and through the intercession of Mussolini,asked for a conference to be held in Munich with Chamberlain, Mussolini, and the French Premier Édouard Daladier to discuss the Czechoslovak situation,which later came to be known as Munich Conference.There,on 30th September 1:30 am ,they agreed that Germany would complete its occupation of the Sudetenland by 10th October, but an international commission would consider other disputed areas. Czechoslovakia was told that if it did not submit, it would stand alone.

The Czechoslovak government, realizing the hopelessness of fighting Germany alone, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The settlement gave Germany the Sudetenland starting 10 October, and de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised to go no further. On September 30th after some rest, Chamberlain went to Hitler and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler’s interpreter translated it for him, he happily agreed. On 30 September, upon his return to Britain, Chamberlain delivered his famous “peace for our time” speech to delighted crowds in London.Hence Czechoslovakia ceased to exist (by March 1939 all its territories were divided among Germany,Poland,Hungary and an independent Slovakia).

The reactions to Munich Agreement were quick and decisive.Hitler was declared TIME’s magazine man of the year of 1938.Some historians arugue it was a easy way out of the French government of their alliance with Czechslovakia,as French were underprepared both military and economically for a war with Germany.Daladier having himself witnessed the trauma of First World War,hence persuaded Britain to adopt diplomatic means to “peacefully” settle the Czechoslovakian issue.Had French be any prepared for the war,or had Neville didn’t follow his peaceful means,German would have sure gone.It is evident by the fact that Hitler changed his mind at the last minute for the invasion of Czechoslovakia fearing that Germany was at that time not prepared for War with both Britain and France.Infact Daladier himself believed that War was inevitable,in late april 1938 meeting he told british that Hitler’s real aim was to eventually secure “a domination of the Continent in comparison with which the ambitions of Napoleon were feeble.”Neville Chamberlain was happy to avoid war and was acclaimed heroically in Britain.Hitler,on the other hand,was furious.He felt as though he had been forced into “acting like a bourgeois politician by his diplomats and generals”,a rising indication for his mistakes of not listening to his Generals and Diplomats in the War that followed.His actions against Britain had followed the exact opposite of what he proposed in Zwites Buch of 1928,ready to go against Britain any moment.A British diplomat in Berlin was informed by reliable sources that Hitler viewed Chamberlain as “an impertinent busybody who spoke the ridiculous jargon of an outmoded democracy. The umbrella, which to the ordinary German was a symbol of peace, was in Hitler’s view only a subject of derision”.Also, Hitler had been heard saying: “If ever that silly old man comes interfering here again with his umbrella, I’ll kick him downstairs and jump on his stomach in front of the photographers”.Though Hitler professed happiness in public over the achievement of his ostensible demands, in private he was determined to have a war the next time around by ensuring that Germany’s future demands would not be met,hence leading to World War 2.Joseph Stalin,the new Soviet leader of the reformed USSR,was upset too.

The Soviets had not been represented at the conference and felt they should be acknowledged as a major power. The British and French, however, mostly used the Soviets as a threat to dangle over the Germans. Stalin concluded that the West had actively colluded with Hitler to hand over an Eastern European country to the Nazis, causing concern that they might do the same to the Soviet Union in the future, allowing the partition of the USSR between the western powers and the fascist Axis. This belief led the Soviet Union to reorient its foreign policy towards a rapprochement with Germany, which eventually led to the signing of theMolotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939.

In strict Anti Britain measures,Poland was the most important country to have,either as a satellite state or by means of annexation.Firstly,it was the first step towards the necessary “space” to the east,Hitler’s main ambitions.Secondly,Poland was important on economic consideration as it had vast food resources and could be used effectively if Britain employs Naval blockade.

Initially, the German hope was transform Poland into a satellite state, but by March 1939 when the German demands had been rejected by the Poles three times, which led Hitler to decide upon the destruction of Poland as the main German foreign policy goal of 1939.On April 3, 1939 Hitler ordered the military to start preparing for Fall Weiss (Case White), the plan for a German invasion to be executed on 25 August 1939.For the people who agreed to Germany’s aggression,it was due to the fact that Anti Polish feelings ran high among the people of Germany and they were ready for annexing Poland even if they had to pay the heavy price of war with France and Britain.Hitler on the other hand.Hitler ofcourse was much offended when Britain guaranteed independence of Poland on 31st March 2009,hence in a speech before the Reichstag on April 28, 1939, Adolf Hitler complaining of British “encirclement” of Germany, renounced both the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact.. As a pretext for aggression against Poland, Hitler claimed the Free City of Danzig and the right for “extra-territorial” roads across the Polish Corridor which Germany had unwillingly ceded under the Versailles treaty. For Hitler, Danzig was just a pretext for aggression as the Sudetenland had been intended to be in 1938, and throughout 1939, while highlighting the Danzig issue as a grievance, the Germans always refused to engage in talks about the matter.

Now Hitler had a dilemma to solve.His long term anti-britain course,which included the vastly expanded Kriegsmarine (Z Plan) and Luftwaffe would take several more years to complete,and his short term foreign policy of 1939 to occupy Poland would most probably trigger a European War with Britain and France.

Hitler’s dilemma between his short-term and long-term goals was resolved by Foreign Minister Ribbentrop who told Hitler that neither Britain nor France would honor their commitments to Poland, and any German-Polish war would accordingly be a limited regional war.Ribbentrop based his appraisal partly on an alleged statement made to him by the French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet in December 1938 that France now recognized Eastern Europe as Germany’s exclusive sphere of influence.In addition, Ribbentrop’s status as the former Ambassador to London made him in Hitler’s eyes the leading Nazi British expert, and as a result, Ribbentrop’s advice that Britain would not honor her commitments to Poland carried much weight with Hitler.In addition, the German Ambassador in London, Herbert von Dirksen tended to send reports that supported Ribbentrop’s analysis such as a dispatch in August 1939 that reported Neville Chamberlain knew “the social structure of Britain, even the conception of the British Empire, would not survive the chaos of even a victorious war”, and so would back down.The extent that Hitler was influenced by Ribbentrop’s advice can be seen in Hitler’s orders to the German military on 21 August 1939 for a limited mobilization against Poland alone.

The problems caused by the need to begin a campaign in Poland in late August or early September in order to have the campaign finished before the October rains arrived, and the need to have sufficient time to concentrate German troops on the Polish border left Hitler in a self-imposed situation in August 1939 where Soviet co-operation was absolutely crucial if he were to have a war that year (which was easy thanks to Munich Agreement and the isolation of Soviet Union).

German war planners had estimated massive raw materials shortfalls if Germany entered a war without Soviet supply.Hence On 23 August 1939, Joseph Stalin accepted Hitler’s proposal to conclude a non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), whose secret protocols contained an agreement to partition Poland.(At the signing, Ribbentrop and Stalin enjoyed warm conversations, exchanged toasts and further addressed the prior hostilities between the countries in the 1930s.They characterized Britain as always attempting to disrupt Soviet-German relations, stated that the Anti-Comintern pact was not aimed at the Soviet Union, but actually aimed at Western democracies and “frightened principally the City of London [i.e., the British financiers] and the English shopkeepers.” ). In the last days of peace, Hitler oscillated between the determination to fight the Western powers if he had to, and various schemes intended to keep Britain out of the war, but in any case, Hitler was not to be deterred from his aim of invading Poland.But it was of no avail and the Hitler declared War on Poland on 1st September 1939.

Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September but did not immediately act. Hitler was most unpleasantly surprised at receiving the British declaration of war on 3 September 1939, and turning to Ribbentrop angrily asked “Now what?” Not long after this, on 17 September, Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland.Now a big question asked is,despite the fact the massive rearmament would still take some years to complete,why did Hitler rushed into the War.Some historians (Timothy Mason) suggest that Hitler had acute economic crisis (e.g 80 percent of oil came from New World) and hence rapid annexation would mean shortening of economic woes posed.Some other historians (William Carr, Gerhard Weinberg and Ian Kershaw) suggest that Hitler was becoming old (50 years in 1939) and hence wanted to rush and finish his objectives,fearing he has not much time left for his works (Hitler had an obsessive fear of an early death).After the European War was declared,what followed was Phoney Wars,perhaps the biggest mistake of the Allies side to not to directly engage Germany.The period of seven months from 1st September 1939 to the French Invasion on May 1940 was marked by a lack of major military operations in Continental Europe. The great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, yet neither side had committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground, notwithstanding terms of Anglo-Polish military alliance and Franco-Polish Military Alliance, which obliged the United Kingdom and France to take military action, in the case of the United Kingdom, in 15 days time.

While most of the German army was engaged in Poland, a much smaller German force manned the Siegfried Line, their fortified defensive line along the French border. At the Maginot Line on the other side of the border, British and French troops stood facing them, but there were only some local, minor skirmishes.Had the than strong French and British forces attacked,the minority of the German forces at the western Europe would have been crushed.One strong evidence,denoting the fact of German defence at the Western border line at 1939 is evident by the comment of Alfred Jofl at the Nuremberg Trials who said that “if we did not collapse already in the year 1939 that was due only to the fact that during the Polish campaign, the approximately 110 French and British divisions in the West were held completely inactive against the 23 German divisions.“Intial French forces advanced in the Saar offensive but were stopped 1km short of the Siegfried Line.However,one notable event in Phoney War was the Soviet Union’s offense against Finland on 30th November 1939 which was termed as Winter War.Britain and French forces immediately supported the democratic Finland leading to the expulsion of Soviet Union from league of Nations and formation of forces and aid to be supplied to Finland from Norway.However the forces were not dispatched until the winter war ended (instead being dispatched to the Norwegian campaign).The Norwegian campaign on the other hand was the first land confrontation of the Allies with the German forces.The conflict,which occurred from 9th april to 10th June 1940 led to occupation of Norway by NAZI Germany.

The primary reason for Nazi Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Nazi Germany’s dependence on Swedish iron ore shipped from the Norwegian port of Narvik. By securing access to Norwegian ports, Nazi Germany could obtain the iron ore supply it needed for war production despite the British naval blockade of Nazi Germany.Using the pretext of Altmark Incident (sinking of German Vessel by Norway),Germans were convinced that the strategically important Norway would not be neutral and hence the landing on the port of Narvik was issued.Fighting do followed and Allies even managed to recapture the port of Narvik but it was too late as the French Invasion had already begun.Operation Alphabet which announced the withdrawl of the Allies forces from Norway (issued on 24th May),further seized Norway’s fate as Norway was eventually occupied by German forces.However two notable changes occurred in the Allies side,one which would have likely changed the course of the War.

The debacle of the Allied campaign in Norway, which actually was an offspring of the never-realised plans to aid Finland, forced a famous debate in the House of Commons during which the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was under constant attack A nominal vote of confidence in his government was won by 281 to 200,and hence On 10 May Chamberlain resigned the premiership whilst retaining the leadership of the Conservative Party. The King, George VI, appointed Winston Churchill, who had been a consistent opponent of Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement, as his successor and Churchill formed a new coalition government that included members of the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party as well as several ministers from a non-political background. Churchill,as later showed in the course of the War,was a man of steel who never advocated peace with Germany even with crisis of occupation of Britain following French defeat.Also On 20 March, after the Winter War had ended, Édouard Daladier resigned as Prime Minister in France, due to his failure to aid Finland’s defence.Germany,by the end of winter war and the Phoney War,had built a strong military force in the western frontier and would soon,by invasion of France,would lead to a new term in modern warfare,a warfare where tanks are no longer used to support infantry but rather used as own independent means,where traditional methods of annihilation warfare were replaced by columns of mechanized forces moving swiftly through the enemy flanks catching them by surprise,BLITZKRIEG was born!

The Rise and Fall of Hitler:His mistakes and His World (PART 1)

•July 20, 2009 • 2 Comments
“At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the Nazi movement will go on for 1,000 years!… Don’t forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!”
Adolf Hitler to a British correspondent in Berlin, June 1934
Noman or woman influenced the 20th century as one man bold visions and ideas:- Adolf Hitler.His very actions or rather the situations which affected him changed the course of the way we look or live in the “new world”.His ideas and policies,which ultimately resulted in the most brutal war of the twentieth century,World War 2,his makes which resulted in Allies victory which shaped the World,the cold war which followed as aftermath and not to forget the widescale genocide of the jews happening in his Third Reich (which was supposed to live for a thousand years),everything happened because of Hitler.This blog tries to summarise his steps and measures taken which costed him the war,and also tries to imagine the world which Hitler never created.
A Brief Intro:-
The Great Depression left its mark to the entire world but nowhere was the impact so deep as the already suffereing Germany.The German state at 1930 was extremly disturbing.National shame, embarrassment, anger and resentment which resulted from the Treaty of Versailles still runned deep into the proud Germans.Civil unrest,the rising threat of Commnuism (as reflected by the growth of the KPD) and growing dissent against the new democratic government which was sure to dall down further intensified the people opinions to seek out extreme lefts and rights,one among them being the NAZI Party.
Through bold speeches and promises like national and cultural renewal based on volkisch traditionalism,military rearmament, repudiation of reparations and reclamation of forfeited territory in opposition to the Treaty of Versailles.(the party claimed that through Versailles and the liberal democracy of the Weimar Republic, Germany’s national pride had, by the inspiration and conniving of the Jews, been deviously surrendered by the wicked and traitorous “November criminals,” whose goal was to subvert and poison the German blood.The Nazis also endorsed the Dolchstoßlegende,”Stab in the back legend”, which figured prominently in their propaganda as it did in propaganda of most other nationalist-leaning parties in Germany).NAZI proclaimed themselves as their savior from the economic Depression, the Versailles treaty, communism, the “Judeo-Bolsheviks”, and other “undesirable” minorities.The bold charisma of Hitler and his innovative measures like campaigning from a plane aided the NAZI party to quickly become the single largest party in Germany.It is evident by the fact that In the elections of 1928, when economic conditions had improved following the end of the hyperinflation of 1922-23, the Nazis gained a meager 12 seats. In 1930, months after the US stock market crash, they won an astonishing 107 seats, going from a splinter group that ranked ninth in the Reichstag to the second-largest parliamentary party. After the July elections of 1932, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag, with 230 seats.On 30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany by Hindenburg after attempts by General Kurt von Schleicher to form a viable government failed (the Machtergreifung). Von Schleicher was hoping he could control Hitler by becoming vice chancellor and also keeping the Nazis a minority in the cabinet.
But his plans were foiled.On the night of 27 February 1933 the Reichstag building was set on fire and Dutch council communist Marinus van der Lubbe was found inside the building. He was arrested and charged with starting the blaze. The event had an immediate effect on thousands of anarchists, socialists and communists throughout the Reich, many of whom were sent to the Dachau concentration camp. The unnerved public worried that the fire had been a signal meant to initiate the communist revolution, and the Nazis found the event to be of immeasurable value in getting rid of potential insurgents. The event was quickly followed by the Reichstag Fire Decree, rescinding habeas corpus and other civil liberties.The Enabling Act was passed in 23rd March 1933, with 444 votes, to the 94 of the remaining Social Democrats. The act gave the government (and thus effectively the Nazi Party) legislative powers and also authorized it to deviate from the provisions of the constitution for four years. In effect, Hitler had seized dictatorial powers.
After this what followed was a ruthless political elimination.In just four years Hitler established a totaliatrian government banning all political parties except the NAZI party.Using methods of power and deceit,aided by death of than President Paul von Hindenburg on 2 August 1934 he finally became the Head of the State (Führer und Reichskanzler) by mid 1934.Through his fierce speeches of visions of Greater Germany,which instilled confidence and garnered support from the german people and through methods of Gleichschaltung to establish a totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce,Hitler systematically eliminated all of his opponents particularly Trade Unions and Communist Parties.Critics of Hitler were suppressed or silenced (It is estimated that tens of thousands of political victims died or disappeared in the first few years of Nazi rule).By 1938,Hitler and his Third Reich directly controlled all spehres of Germany.Army where Hitler,as head of state,now became supreme commander of the armed forces. When it came time for the soldiers and sailors to swear the traditional loyalty oath, it had been altered into an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.Education where syllabus were refined to focus moreon racial biology, population policy, culture, geography and especially physical fitness.Society where racial discrimination were targetted on minorities (according to Hitler) like Jews,Romani (also known as Gypsies), Jehovah’s Witnesses,people with mental or physical disabilities and homosexuals.Aryan race or people of Aryan decent were given preference.Economy,where massive rearmament and industrialization process led to the extremely rapid decline in unemployment–the most rapid decline in unemployment in any country during the Great Depression,boasted further by Four year Plan by Hossbach Memorandum (to convert the force of 100,000 to millions which was successful to create the might of the German Army) and the visionary likes of Albert Seer.To further curtail Civil liberties,Gestapo or police acting outside of any civil authority were formed.Such was the effect that by 1938,people were afraid to oppose NAZIS in the fear of being sentenced to death.The ordinary german citizens were happy with the recovering economy and the promises made by Hitler,obeying without questions and showing loyalty.But some others opposed only to meet their demises.(for further reference on How Hitler influenced German people read Milton Mayer’s book, “They Thought They Were Free”.).In 1938, Hitler forced the resignation of his War Minister (formerly Defense Minister), Werner von Blomberg, after evidence surfaced that Blomberg’s new wife had a criminal past.Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (High Command of the Armed Forces, or OKW), headed by General Wilhelm Keitel. More importantly, Hitler announced he was assuming personal command of the armed forces. He took over Blomberg’s other old post, that of Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, for himself.Hence becoming the Supreme Ruler of Germany and eliminating the last person capable of overthrowing him.
Now before we go on his International relationships,politics of appeasement and the subsequent World War 2 that followed,it is important to understand what were the opinions and plans of Hitler.In a bold book written in prison named Mein Kampf and the unpublished Zweites Buch,Hitler puts down the stages of the emergence of Germany in the political scene.In the first stage, there would be a massive military build-up, the overthrow of the “shackles” of the Treaty of Versailles, and the forming of alliances with Fascist Italy and the British Empire. The second stage would be a series of fast, “lightning wars” in conjunction with Italy and Britain against France and whichever of her allies in Eastern Europe — such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia — chose to stand by her. The third stage would be a war to obliterate what Hitler considered to be the “Judeo-Bolshevik” regime in the Soviet Union.In contrast to Mein Kampf, in Zweites Buch Hitler added a fourth stage to the Stufenplan. He announced that, around 1980, the final struggle for world domination would take place between the United States and the now Greater Germany allied with the British Empire.Of all Germany’s potential enemies, Hitler ranked the United States as the greatest and most dangerous. By contrast, Hitler saw the United Kingdom as a fellow “Aryan” power that in exchange for Germany’s renunciation of naval and colonial ambitions would ally itself with Germany. France in Hitler’s opinion, was rapidly “Negroizing” itself. In regard to the Soviet Union, Hitler dismissed the Russian people as being Slavic Untermenschen (“sub-humans”) incapable of intelligent thought. Hitler consequently believed that the Russian people were ruled over by what he regarded as a gang of bloodthirsty but inept Jewish revolutionaries. By contrast, the majority of Americans were in Hitler’s view “Aryans”, albeit Aryans ruled by what Hitler saw as a Jewish plutocracy.In Hitler’s point of view, it was this combination of “Aryan” might coupled with competent “Jewish rule” which was what made the U.S. so dangerous.
These are but just glimpses of Hitler’s opinions which ultimately led to his defeat and shaping of the new world.Hitler was anti semtic and believed in a nationalist and anti marxist and anti capitalist idea of society.A a “non-Jewish” version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society were his visions.His ideas were extremly racist and he viewed the German people divided by two fronts:- Aryan and “Non Aryan Minorities” with focus on developing and enriching the Aryan race.His bold vision was to create Germania,a Europe from Urals to France where his perfect breed of Aryans would have the neccessary Lebensraum or Living Space,particulary in the East where he wanted to destroy the Communist forever.Hence neccessary steps to purge the Europe of the weak and create Aryan race were taken right from the beginning.The results were the Genocide and the Holocaust,resulting in the death of 6 million Jews.Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women’s Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her “world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home.” This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies.The Nazis also undertook programs targeting “weak” or “unfit” people, such as the T-4 Euthanasia Program, killing tens of thousands of disabled and sick Germans in an effort to “maintain the purity of the German Master race”.Under a law passed in 1933, the Nazi regime carried out the compulsory sterilization of over 400,000 individuals labeled as having hereditary defects, ranging from mental illness to alcoholism.Another component of the Nazi programme of creating racial purity was the Lebensborn, or “Fountain of Life” programme founded in 1936. The programme was aimed at encouraging German soldiers — mainly SS — to reproduce. This included offering SS families support services (including the adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families) and accommodating racially-valuable women, pregnant with mainly SS men’s children, in care homes in Germany and throughout Occupied Europe. Lebensborn also expanded to encompass the placing of racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries — such as Poland — with German families.Programmes such as “Hitler Youth” further ensured “Men to work and Women to bear children” policies.Hitler believed in Darwinism Natural selection,Strong Dominating Weak.He thought we are messing with our evolution by caring for the weak and he believed that the society would acheive the higher level if its cleaned of Weaks.During the war, Hitler remarked that peace could only be achieved by a return to the natural order where the strong dominate the weak: an order that was corrupted by the Jews.In other instances, Hitler justifies the destruction of entire cities because, in his view, it was necessary to “revert to antique principles.”Hitler also looked to both Genghis Khan and Sparta to support his ideas of natural selection with the necessary historical backing. Thus, at a Nazi party convention in 1929 Hitler argued against the “Jewish train of thought:”
“The worst danger is that we are interrupting the natural selection process ourselves (by caring for the sick and the weak). … The most far-sighted racial state in history, Sparta, systematically implemented these racial laws.”
This had some postive effects though,like the Nazi Anti Tobacco movement,which was arguably the most powerful anti tobacco movement in the world.Also the conecpt of Dauerwald (best translated as the “perpetual forest”) which included concepts such as forest management and protection was promoted and efforts were also made to curb air-pollution were incoporated in the NAZI regime. In 1933 the regime enacted a stringent animal-protection law.Several Nazis were environmentalists, and species protection and animal welfare were significant issues in the regime.
Overall what can be concluded of Hitler is that he sought to create Germania,or greater Europe,a superpower like USA.He wanted to purge the society of weaks,inferiors,minorities,Homosexuals,Jews and the Communists and create a master race of ethic germans and Aryans with their neccessary Lebensraum or living space in the East.He sought to create alliance with the British Empire and had due respect for it (although By the latter half of 1937, Hitler had abandoned his dream of an Anglo-German alliance, blaming “inadequate” British leadership for turning down his offers of an alliance).His primary attention although was always focussed on the east,the USSR,and his ultimate ambition was to get rid of the world of Communism and the Jews.
Note:- One clear cut intention which Hitler discussed,apparently for the first time was recorded on Hossbach Memorandum.It was summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership. The meeting marked a turning point in Hitler’s foreign policies, which then began to radicalise. It outlined Hitler’s plans for expansion in Europe. According to the Memorandum, Hitler did not want war in 1939 with Britain and France. What he wanted was small wars of plunder to help support Germany’s struggling economy (although the Nazis never let on about their financial problems). Hitler wanted a full-scale European war with Britain and France between 1941-1944/5.He also ordered the attendees to make plans for war in the east no later than 1943 in order to acquire Lebensraum.The memorandum was where Hitler’s future expansionist policies were outlined. Hitler stated the conference minutes were to be regarded as his “political testament” in the event of his death.The most important point of this memorandum was the increased hostility of Britain.Hitler regarded them as  “hate-inspired antagonist”.

Hitler_portrait_crop

“At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the Nazi movement will go on for 1,000 years!… Don’t forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!”

Adolf Hitler to a British correspondent in Berlin, June 1934

Noman or woman influenced the 20th century as one man bold visions and ideas:- Adolf Hitler.His very actions or rather the situations which affected him changed the course of the way we look or live in the “new world”.His ideas and policies,which ultimately resulted in the most brutal war of the twentieth century,World War 2,his makes which resulted in Allies victory which shaped the World,the cold war which followed as aftermath and not to forget the widescale genocide of the jews happening in his Third Reich (which was supposed to live for a thousand years),everything happened because of Hitler.This blog tries to summarise his steps and measures taken which costed him the war,and also tries to imagine the world which Hitler never created.

A Brief Intro

The Great Depression left its mark to the entire world but nowhere was the impact so deep as the already suffereing Germany.The German state at 1930 was extremly disturbing.National shame, embarrassment, anger and resentment which resulted from the Treaty of Versailles still runned deep into the proud Germans.Civil unrest,the rising threat of Commnuism (as reflected by the growth of the KPD) and growing dissent against the new democratic government which was sure to dall down further intensified the people opinions to seek out extreme lefts and rights,one among them being the NAZI Party.
Through bold speeches and promises like national and cultural renewal based on volkisch traditionalism,military rearmament, repudiation of reparations and reclamation of forfeited territory in opposition to the Treaty of Versailles.(the party claimed that through Versailles and the liberal democracy of the Weimar Republic, Germany’s national pride had, by the inspiration and conniving of the Jews, been deviously surrendered by the wicked and traitorous “November criminals,” whose goal was to subvert and poison the German blood.The Nazis also endorsed the Dolchstoßlegende,”Stab in the back legend”, which figured prominently in their propaganda as it did in propaganda of most other nationalist-leaning parties in Germany).NAZI proclaimed themselves as their savior from the economic Depression, the Versailles treaty, communism, the “Judeo-Bolsheviks”, and other “undesirable” minorities.The bold charisma of Hitler and his innovative measures like campaigning from a plane aided the NAZI party to quickly become the single largest party in Germany.It is evident by the fact that In the elections of 1928, when economic conditions had improved following the end of the hyperinflation of 1922-23, the Nazis gained a meager 12 seats. In 1930, months after the US stock market crash, they won an astonishing 107 seats, going from a splinter group that ranked ninth in the Reichstag to the second-largest parliamentary party. After the July elections of 1932, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag, with 230 seats.On 30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany by Hindenburg after attempts by General Kurt von Schleicher to form a viable government failed (the Machtergreifung). Von Schleicher was hoping he could control Hitler by becoming vice chancellor and also keeping the Nazis a minority in the cabinet.
But his plans were foiled.On the night of 27 February 1933 the Reichstag building was set on fire and Dutch council communist Marinus van der Lubbe was found inside the building. He was arrested and charged with starting the blaze. The event had an immediate effect on thousands of anarchists, socialists and communists throughout the Reich, many of whom were sent to the Dachau concentration camp. The unnerved public worried that the fire had been a signal meant to initiate the communist revolution, and the Nazis found the event to be of immeasurable value in getting rid of potential insurgents. The event was quickly followed by the Reichstag Fire Decree, rescinding habeas corpus and other civil liberties.The Enabling Act was passed in 23rd March 1933, with 444 votes, to the 94 of the remaining Social Democrats. The act gave the government (and thus effectively the Nazi Party) legislative powers and also authorized it to deviate from the provisions of the constitution for four years. In effect, Hitler had seized dictatorial powers.

After this what followed was a ruthless political elimination.In just four years Hitler established a totaliatrian government banning all political parties except the NAZI party.Using methods of power and deceit,aided by death of than President Paul von Hindenburg on 2 August 1934 he finally became the Head of the State (Führer und Reichskanzler) by mid 1934.Through his fierce speeches of visions of Greater Germany,which instilled confidence and garnered support from the german people and through methods of Gleichschaltung to establish a totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce,Hitler systematically eliminated all of his opponents particularly Trade Unions and Communist Parties.Critics of Hitler were suppressed or silenced (It is estimated that tens of thousands of political victims died or disappeared in the first few years of Nazi rule).By 1938,Hitler and his Third Reich directly controlled all spehres of Germany.Army where Hitler,as head of state,now became supreme commander of the armed forces. When it came time for the soldiers and sailors to swear the traditional loyalty oath, it had been altered into an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.Education where syllabus were refined to focus moreon racial biology, population policy, culture, geography and especially physical fitness.Society where racial discrimination were targetted on minorities (according to Hitler) like Jews,Romani (also known as Gypsies), Jehovah’s Witnesses,people with mental or physical disabilities and homosexuals.Aryan race or people of Aryan decent were given preference.Economy,where massive rearmament and industrialization process led to the extremely rapid decline in unemployment–the most rapid decline in unemployment in any country during the Great Depression,boasted further by Four year Plan by Hossbach Memorandum (to convert the force of 100,000 to millions which was successful to create the might of the German Army) and the visionary likes of Albert Seer.To further curtail Civil liberties,Gestapo or police acting outside of any civil authority were formed.Such was the effect that by 1938,people were afraid to oppose NAZIS in the fear of being sentenced to death.The ordinary german citizens were happy with the recovering economy and the promises made by Hitler,obeying without questions and showing loyalty.But some others opposed only to meet their demises.(for further reference on How Hitler influenced German people read Milton Mayer’s book, “They Thought They Were Free”.).In 1938, Hitler forced the resignation of his War Minister (formerly Defense Minister), Werner von Blomberg, after evidence surfaced that Blomberg’s new wife had a criminal past.Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (High Command of the Armed Forces, or OKW), headed by General Wilhelm Keitel. More importantly, Hitler announced he was assuming personal command of the armed forces. He took over Blomberg’s other old post, that of Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, for himself.Hence becoming the Supreme Ruler of Germany and eliminating the last person capable of overthrowing him.

Now before we go on his International relationships,politics of appeasement and the subsequent World War 2 that followed,it is important to understand what were the opinions and plans of Hitler.In a bold book written in prison named Mein Kampf and the unpublished Zweites Buch,Hitler puts down the stages of the emergence of Germany in the political scene.In the first stage, there would be a massive military build-up, the overthrow of the “shackles” of the Treaty of Versailles, and the forming of alliances with Fascist Italy and the British Empire. The second stage would be a series of fast, “lightning wars” in conjunction with Italy and Britain against France and whichever of her allies in Eastern Europe — such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia — chose to stand by her. The third stage would be a war to obliterate what Hitler considered to be the “Judeo-Bolshevik” regime in the Soviet Union.In contrast to Mein Kampf, in Zweites Buch Hitler added a fourth stage to the Stufenplan. He announced that, around 1980, the final struggle for world domination would take place between the United States and the now Greater Germany allied with the British Empire.Of all Germany’s potential enemies, Hitler ranked the United States as the greatest and most dangerous. By contrast, Hitler saw the United Kingdom as a fellow “Aryan” power that in exchange for Germany’s renunciation of naval and colonial ambitions would ally itself with Germany. France in Hitler’s opinion, was rapidly “Negroizing” itself. In regard to the Soviet Union, Hitler dismissed the Russian people as being Slavic Untermenschen (“sub-humans”) incapable of intelligent thought. Hitler consequently believed that the Russian people were ruled over by what he regarded as a gang of bloodthirsty but inept Jewish revolutionaries. By contrast, the majority of Americans were in Hitler’s view “Aryans”, albeit Aryans ruled by what Hitler saw as a Jewish plutocracy.In Hitler’s point of view, it was this combination of “Aryan” might coupled with competent “Jewish rule” which was what made the U.S. so dangerous.

These are but just glimpses of Hitler’s opinions which ultimately led to his defeat and shaping of the new world.Hitler was anti semtic and believed in a nationalist and anti marxist and anti capitalist idea of society.A a “non-Jewish” version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society were his visions.His ideas were extremly racist and he viewed the German people divided by two fronts:- Aryan and “Non Aryan Minorities” with focus on developing and enriching the Aryan race.His bold vision was to create Germania,a Europe from Urals to France where his perfect breed of Aryans would have the neccessary Lebensraum or Living Space,particulary in the East where he wanted to destroy the Communist forever.Hence neccessary steps to purge the Europe of the weak and create Aryan race were taken right from the beginning.The results were the Genocide and the Holocaust,resulting in the death of 6 million Jews.Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women’s Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her “world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home.” This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies.The Nazis also undertook programs targeting “weak” or “unfit” people, such as the T-4 Euthanasia Program, killing tens of thousands of disabled and sick Germans in an effort to “maintain the purity of the German Master race”.Under a law passed in 1933, the Nazi regime carried out the compulsory sterilization of over 400,000 individuals labeled as having hereditary defects, ranging from mental illness to alcoholism.Another component of the Nazi programme of creating racial purity was the Lebensborn, or “Fountain of Life” programme founded in 1936. The programme was aimed at encouraging German soldiers — mainly SS — to reproduce. This included offering SS families support services (including the adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families) and accommodating racially-valuable women, pregnant with mainly SS men’s children, in care homes in Germany and throughout Occupied Europe. Lebensborn also expanded to encompass the placing of racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries — such as Poland — with German families.Programmes such as “Hitler Youth” further ensured “Men to work and Women to bear children” policies.Hitler believed in Darwinism Natural selection,Strong Dominating Weak.He thought we are messing with our evolution by caring for the weak and he believed that the society would acheive the higher level if its cleaned of Weaks.During the war, Hitler remarked that peace could only be achieved by a return to the natural order where the strong dominate the weak: an order that was corrupted by the Jews.In other instances, Hitler justifies the destruction of entire cities because, in his view, it was necessary to “revert to antique principles.”Hitler also looked to both Genghis Khan and Sparta to support his ideas of natural selection with the necessary historical backing. Thus, at a Nazi party convention in 1929 Hitler argued against the “Jewish train of thought:”

“The worst danger is that we are interrupting the natural selection process ourselves (by caring for the sick and the weak). … The most far-sighted racial state in history, Sparta, systematically implemented these racial laws.”


This had some postive effects though,like the Nazi Anti Tobacco movement,which was arguably the most powerful anti tobacco movement in the world.Also the conecpt of Dauerwald (best translated as the “perpetual forest”) which included concepts such as forest management and protection was promoted and efforts were also made to curb air-pollution were incoporated in the NAZI regime. In 1933 the regime enacted a stringent animal-protection law.Several Nazis were environmentalists, and species protection and animal welfare were significant issues in the regime.

Overall what can be concluded of Hitler is that he sought to create Germania,or greater Europe,a superpower like USA.He wanted to purge the society of weaks,inferiors,minorities,Homosexuals,Jews and the Communists and create a master race of ethic germans and Aryans with their neccessary Lebensraum or living space in the East.He sought to create alliance with the British Empire and had due respect for it (although By the latter half of 1937, Hitler had abandoned his dream of an Anglo-German alliance, blaming “inadequate” British leadership for turning down his offers of an alliance).His primary attention although was always focussed on the east,the USSR,and his ultimate ambition was to get rid of the world of Communism and the Jews.

Note:- One clear cut intention which Hitler discussed,apparently for the first time was recorded on Hossbach Memorandum.It was summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership. The meeting marked a turning point in Hitler’s foreign policies, which then began to radicalise. It outlined Hitler’s plans for expansion in Europe. According to the Memorandum, Hitler did not want war in 1939 with Britain and France. What he wanted was small wars of plunder to help support Germany’s struggling economy (although the Nazis never let on about their financial problems). Hitler wanted a full-scale European war with Britain and France between 1941-1944/5.He also ordered the attendees to make plans for war in the east no later than 1943 in order to acquire Lebensraum.The memorandum was where Hitler’s future expansionist policies were outlined. Hitler stated the conference minutes were to be regarded as his “political testament” in the event of his death.The most important point of this memorandum was the increased hostility of Britain.Hitler regarded them as “hate-inspired antagonist”.

PS:For Most of the Statistics i have referred to wikipedia.org.